Human-specific transcriptional networks in the brain.
|Title||Human-specific transcriptional networks in the brain.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2012|
|Authors||Konopka G, Friedrich T, Davis-Turak J, Winden K, Oldham MC, Gao F, Chen L, Wang G-Z, Luo R, Preuss TM, Geschwind DH|
|Date Published||2012 Aug 23|
|Keywords||Animals, Brain, CLOCK Proteins, Evolution, Molecular, Forkhead Transcription Factors, Gene Expression, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Regulatory Networks, Humans, Macaca, Mental Disorders, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, Pan troglodytes, Transcription Factors|
Understanding human-specific patterns of brain gene expression and regulation can provide key insights into human brain evolution and speciation. Here, we use next-generation sequencing, and Illumina and Affymetrix microarray platforms, to compare the transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and macaque telencephalon. Our analysis reveals a predominance of genes differentially expressed within human frontal lobe and a striking increase in transcriptional complexity specific to the human lineage in the frontal lobe. In contrast, caudate nucleus gene expression is highly conserved. We also identify gene coexpression signatures related to either neuronal processes or neuropsychiatric diseases, including a human-specific module with CLOCK as its hub gene and another module enriched for neuronal morphological processes and genes coexpressed with FOXP2, a gene important for language evolution. These data demonstrate that transcriptional networks have undergone evolutionary remodeling even within a given brain region, providing a window through which to view the foundation of uniquely human cognitive capacities.