Identification of 67 histone marks and histone lysine crotonylation as a new type of histone modification.

TitleIdentification of 67 histone marks and histone lysine crotonylation as a new type of histone modification.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsTan M, Luo H, Lee S, Jin F, Yang J S, Montellier E, Buchou T, Cheng Z, Rousseaux S, Rajagopal N, Lu Z, Ye Z, Zhu Q, Wysocka J, Ye Y, Khochbin S, Ren B, Zhao Y
JournalCell
Volume146
Issue6
Pagination1016-28
Date Published2011 Sep 16
ISSN1097-4172
KeywordsAnimals, Gene Expression Regulation, HeLa Cells, Histone Code, Histones, Humans, Lysine, Male, Meiosis, Mice, Protein Processing, Post-Translational, Testis
Abstract

We report the identification of 67 previously undescribed histone modifications, increasing the current number of known histone marks by about 70%. We further investigated one of the marks, lysine crotonylation (Kcr), confirming that it represents an evolutionarily-conserved histone posttranslational modification. The unique structure and genomic localization of histone Kcr suggest that it is mechanistically and functionally different from histone lysine acetylation (Kac). Specifically, in both human somatic and mouse male germ cell genomes, histone Kcr marks either active promoters or potential enhancers. In male germinal cells immediately following meiosis, Kcr is enriched on sex chromosomes and specifically marks testis-specific genes, including a significant proportion of X-linked genes that escape sex chromosome inactivation in haploid cells. These results therefore dramatically extend the repertoire of histone PTM sites and designate Kcr as a specific mark of active sex chromosome-linked genes in postmeiotic male germ cells.

DOI10.1016/j.cell.2011.08.008
PubMed URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21925322?dopt=Abstract
PMCPMC3176443
Alternate TitleCell
PubMed ID21925322